Dresden’s Frauenkirche: from a Church in Ruins to a Rising Phoenix

The famous photo of Dresden after it was bombed in February 1945.

The famous photo of Dresden after it was bombed in February 1945.

Grainy black-and-white photos of Dresden, Germany, as an ash-covered, bombed-out city with piles of burned corpses in the streets are all that remains of the days and years of annihilation that followed after the WWII bombings in early 1945. Or are they?

I write this on February 13, 2017, Dresden’s Memorial Day, on which the city commemorates February 13, 1945, the day the British and American allies began the bombing of this historic city, sometimes called “Florence of the Elbe River” because its church domes, spires, and ornate palaces and opera house are reminiscent of Florence, Italy.

The bombing turned much of the historic Old City to rubble. Few structures withstood either the bombs or the ensuing inferno generated by about 650,000 incendiary bombs the Allies dropped on the city within 48 hours. The human toll was about 25,000 people, mostly civilians.

The ruins of the Church of Our Lady in Dresden, taken in the 1960s.

The ruins of the Church of Our Lady in Dresden, taken in the 1960s.

Some say Dresden was an “innocent” city with no Nazi ammunition factories or tactical advantage for the war.

Others, including my guide for the “Slaughterhouse Five” tour (more about that in my next post), point out that in 1934, Dresden welcomed Hitler with open arms when he attended an opera at the Semper Opera House in the Theatreplatz. In honor of the fuhrer, Dresdeners renamed their theater square as “Adolf-Hitler-Platz.”

In addition, there seem to have been some logistical centers located in Dresden during the war. Apparently, armaments were stored there, and military training was done in or near the city. These may have been for defense of the city—in times of war, it’s always difficult to know where to draw the line. And after almost six years of the war, the Allies were desperate to finish it, although Dresden’s destruction may not have played much of a part, other than as a display of terrorism.

The Symbolism of the Church of Our Lady

Dresden's Frauenkirche current reincarnation. Photo by Christoph Muench, courtesy Dresden Marketing Board

Dresden’s Frauenkirche’s current reincarnation. Photo by Christoph Muench, courtesy Dresden Marketing Board

The primary symbol of Dresden’s destruction is the Lutheran Frauenkirche (Church of Our Lady), which had one of the largest domes in Europe. Several hundred people took shelter from the bombs in the church’s underground vaults and crypts.

The church withstood the bombing for two days, but ultimately, the dome collapsed on the morning of February 15 from extreme heat; the temperature surrounding the church was estimated at 1,830°F. Reports say the church pillars became red-hot and exploded and that the outer walls shattered. More than 5,000 tons of stone plummeted to earth. The people in the basement evacuated just in time, only to succumb to the firestorm outside.

For decades, Dresden remained a city of rubble. The East German communist government cleared the streets of tons and tons of rubble, and decided to leave the two pieces of wall that stood as a memorial to war. After German Reunification, plans began to rebuild the Frauenkirche. In 1993, archaeologists numbered every stone in the Frauenkirche ruins and photographed each stone’s location before clearing the area for reconstruction. “Rebuilding by replacing every stone that still existed into its original place became the world’s biggest jigsaw puzzle,” says Grit Jandura, PR manager for Frauenkirche Dresden.

Visitors light candles for peace inside the Frauenkirche sanctuary. Photo courtesy Frauenkirche Dresden

Visitors light candles for peace inside the Frauenkirche sanctuary. Photo courtesy Frauenkirche Dresden

The church was completed and re-consecrated on October 30, 2005. It now stands as regally as ever, dominating the Neumarkt Square, with the statue of Martin Luther in front standing upright again. (During the bombing, he was “knocked out of his shoes” as the German expression says; only his feet on the pedestal were intact.)

War and Peace

The rebuilt church is now a monument to peace and reconciliation after the horror of war; perhaps the wounds have healed, yet the painful scars from the bombing still exist, says Jandura. I found a number of stories about the church’s resurrection to be especially touching. For instance, on the altar is a cross made from three iron nails taken from the ruins of England’s Coventry Cathedral, which the Germans blitzed in November of 1940. Both Dresden and Coventry suffered a similar tragedy during WWII, and with this gift, they are forever linked.

The bent and melted tower cross was discovered in the rubble. Photo courtesy Frauenkirche Dresden

The bent and melted tower cross was discovered in the rubble. Photo courtesy Frauenkirche Dresden

Also, the tower cross that crowned the Frauenkirche’s dome was bent and melted after it fell. It is now displayed inside the sanctuary as a reminder of the destruction, but the new tower cross atop the church was donated by the people of the United Kingdom, the country that dropped the first bombs. The Englishman who insisted on crafting the metalwork for that cross, free of charge, turned out to be the son of one of the pilots who bombed Dresden.

There are those who say that the restored Church of Our Lady is lovely, but it’s no longer a harsh reminder of wartime attrocities. “Many wonder how they can teach children the cruelty of war now that the Frauenkirche is whole again,” says Jandura.

Outside the Frauenkirche during my February visit is a temporary art installation of upended buses by Syrian-German artist Manaf Halbouni that serves as a monument to contemporary wars. In Aleppo, people have been using buses as barricades against sniper bullets.

An art installation titled "Monument" recreates an image from the Syrian civil war: buses propped up vertically in an Aleppo street as a barricade against sniper fire. The artist is Syrian-German artist Manaf Halbouni. In the background is the Frauenkirche. Photo © Laurel Kallenbach

An art installation titled “Monument” recreates an image from the Syrian civil war: buses propped up in an Aleppo street as a barricade against sniper fire. (This view shows the underside of the buses.) The artist is Syrian-German artist Manaf Halbouni. In the background is the Frauenkirche. Photo © Laurel Kallenbach

 

The bus art installation—raw, mechanical, and titled “Monument”—has been quite controversial, yet here is a new testament to war’s horrors. In Dresden, where the Frauenkirche has returned to “normal,” it’s unsettling to remember that the world is still filled with violence and hatred, and that wars rage on.

Laurel Kallenbach, freelance writer and editor

Flowers and notes are attached to the grillwork on the underbelly of the buses. The note says, "Respect, Tolerance, Courage, Change, Responsibility, We Are Humans ©Laurel Kallenbach

Flowers and notes are attached to the grillwork on the underbelly of the buses in Neumarkt Square. The white, paper note says, “Respect, Tolerance, Courage, Change, Responsibility, We are (all) Humans.” Photo ©Laurel Kallenbach

 

Maui’s Fantastic Snorkel Spots

We saw lots of butterflyfish while snorkeling in Maui. I snapped tropical fish photos at the Maui Ocean Center.  ©Laurel Kallenbach

Except for kicking my fins occasionally to work against the waves, I feel suspended in space, peering through the water into a fantasy, sci-fi world. The inhabitants of this alternate universe right off the shores of Maui include canary-colored butterflyfish; long-spined sea urchins; brain coral; green turtles; iridescent, bucktoothed parrotfish grazing on coral; and the Hawaii state fish, humuhumunukunukuapua’a or just “humu-humu” for short. (The English name is Picasso triggerfish).

Hovering face down on the ocean surface, my breath rasps through my snorkel with Darth Vader–like exhalations. My pulse quickens with excitement when I spot a large Moorish idol. I gesture madly at the fish, hoping my husband—another stranger in this underwater galaxy—has spotted it too. All in a day’s fun in Maui, a great destination for snorkeling.

Nearly every day on our trip, Ken and I tried out a new beach with a reef not far away, and we were always greeted by wonderful undersea vistas.

The snorkeling was lovely right off picturesque Keawakapu Beach in Kihei ©Laurel Kallenbach

General Snorkeling Advice

Beach Parking: Never leave valuables in your car at Maui beaches; thieves target beach lots, and especially rental cars. This was where our “rent-a-wreck” was perfect. Kihei Rent-a-Car offers new cars, but we picked the less-expensive option of driving an older model. Our Toyota had bleached paint, lots of scrapes, a stained interior, and the trunk was a bit rough around the edges, but it was sufficiently comfortable and the air-conditioning worked. And the biggest benefit was that we fretted less about getting broken into, and we didn’t worry at all about getting dings. Added bonus: Kihei Rent-a-Car is locally owned and the folks are really friendly. They also pick you up and drop you off at the airport for free.

The Picasso triggerfish, AKA humuhumunukunukuapua’a ©Laurel Kallenbach

Beach Closures: There were a few popular snorkel areas on the Maui coast that were closed to allow the ecosystem to recover from overuse. We were disappointed not to be able to snorkel in the Ahihi Kinau Natural Area Reserve—including the snorkeling coves near La Perouse Bay known as Kalaeloa (“Aquarium”) and Mokuha (“Fishbowl”)—but we respected these closures.

Too many snorkelers spoil the reefs and scare away fish. I fear that the volcanic crater of Molokini will be next on this list, as hundreds of snorkelers visit that location daily. Ask local dive/snorkel shops about places that currently ban snorkeling. See my tips for ocean-friendly snorkeling,  including Don’t Wear Sunscreen. (How often do you get that advice?)

 

Honolua Bay

As you drive north on Hwy. 30 past Kapalua, you’ll reach the spot where you can pull over and look down upon the turquoise and azure waters of Honolua Bay, a marine preserve. We parked a little farther along in one of the three roadside parking areas, then walked through the lush tropical forest to reach this gem of a bay.

The beach is all black-lava boulders worn smooth by the ocean, and getting into the water—especially while wearing unwieldy fins—is a bit challenging. But with some effort, we were soon skimming over a large reef on the bay’s north side.

We loved seeing the green sea turtles. Photo courtesy Reef Relief

The delights included unicornfish, humu-humu, a variety of butterflyfish, a maray eel, and lots of colorful coral. A real thrill was encountering two turtles. We watched from a short distance as they dove, snacked on greenery in the rocks, and then surfaced for air.

While we were snorkeling, a catamaran sailed into the bay with snuba (a combination of snorkeling) and divers. At the mouth of the bay, surfers caught white frothy waves and rode them short distances.

Honolua Bay is often listed as the best snorkel site on the island, and I can see why. The water was clear, and because it’s a cove, snorkelers are protected from surge as long as they don’t go too far out.

Black Rock at Ka’anapali Beach

Guidebooks often tout Black Rock as a good place to snorkel, but I’ll never know. We couldn’t stomach Ka’anapali Beach, which was overly crowded. The three-mile-long stretch of golden sand on Maui’s is wall-to-wall high-rise resorts, restaurants, and shops. Not our cup of tea. And when we reached Black Rock—a rocky peninsula at the north end of the beach where ancient Maui residents believed that their spirits “jumped off” for the afterlife—we watched people lining up to do cannonballs into the water. This must have scared off fish, not to mention it seemed disrespectful of a sacred place. We just said “no.”

Po’olenalena Beach

Near Palauea Beach, this Makena-area beach is a park, so there’s no development other than a three-story condo at the south end of this pretty beach. Conveniently, it does have a pretty large parking lot and a porta-potty.

We got a pretty early start with snorkeling here before the water got rough; even so, there was a lot of current, and if we hadn’t been vigilant, it would be easy to get slammed into a coral-covered rock.

We found several areas of healthy reef among the black lava rock. There were spots where the coral was magnificent, but the fish we saw weren’t as plentiful as at Honolua Bay. That said, we did enjoy the raccoon butterflyfish, the Chrismas wrasse, and filefish. The slate-pencil sea urchins were quite impressive, and we spent some time watching a pair of turtles. After we finished snorkeling, Ken and I sat for a while in the sand and admired this pretty beach.

Ken after snorkeling at Po’olenalena Beach. The full-body rash-guard protects from sunburn and lets us skip the sunscreen, which is toxic to corals and just washes off anyway. ©Laurel Kallenbach

Keawakapu Beach

We spent five nights at the Hale Hui Kai condos on Keawakapu Beach on the south side of Kihei, and we were amazed to find good snorkeling right outside our door! The goodies here included spotted eel, turtles, threadfin butterflyfish, “silly-string” shrimp, otherworldly sea urchins, and a pufferfish.

There did tend to be a lot of surge off this reef, and sadly I had to tell two sets of snorkelers not to stand on the coral because it kills it.

—Laurel Kallenbach, freelance writer and editor

Originally published March 11, 2014

We spotted numerous elegant filefish while snorkeling in Maui. I photographed this one at the Maui Ocean Center. ©Laurel Kallenbach

We’re Crazy for Coconut’s Fish Café on Maui

I have a confession to make: I’m nuts about Coconut’s, a casual fish eatery in Kihei, Maui. In fact, Ken and I so loved the fish tacos that we ate them for dinner twice during our vacation.

Coconut’s Fish Café, in Kihei, Maui, serves fresh fish in a casual setting. ©Laurel Kallenbach

With fresh-caught local fish and from-scratch cooking, Coconut’s Fish Café gets it right. The locals know it, and so do some tourists, so this restaurant in a strip mall on South Kihei Road is nearly always hopping. Not a problem: folks share the surfboard tables inside and the picnic tables outside.

Although Coconut’s legendary fish tacos aren’t the only thing on the menu—I was tempted by the fish and chips—they’re irresistible. Here’s why: you get two tacos (one per plate) served open rather than folded. On top of two corn tortillas are grilled chunks of mild-flavored mahi and ono, wedges of mango, grated cheddar, a special sauce concocted from 17 different herbs and spices, and a pile of shredded lettuce and tomato. The tacos are served with a wedge of lemon and your choice of hot sauces. The price: $12 (in November 2013).

Folks flock to Coconut’s for fresh fish tacos. ©Laurel Kallenbach

Also on the menu are grilled fish burgers, fish plates (grilled the way you like it, including blackened, Asian, or Cajun), garlic ribeye steak sandwiches, veggie tacos, coconut shrimp and more.

Fast, Casual, Incredible

Coconut’s Fish Café (which is named for the owners’ white-and-black cat) has a motto: fresh, local, simple, reasonably priced. While some Maui visitors might pass it over for a fancier restaurant, we loved the shorts-and-flip-flops dress code and the surfer ambiance. And it’s relatively quick.

The restaurant is named for the owners’ white-and-black cat, who loves fish. ©Laurel Kallenbach

You line up and order at the counter, then sip your local beer and watch vintage family surfer videos while you wait for your cooked-to-order food. This truly suited us: after a long day of snorkeling, we’d be ravenous by 6 p.m., and the thought of getting dressed up and driving to a restaurant where there might be a 20-minute wait to be seated was unbearable.

And don’t be deceived by Coconut’s casual setting: Zagat’s gives the café a rating of 27 (on a scale of 30), which classifies it as “Extraordinary to Perfection.” I don’t think it’s possible to get a better fish taco on the island.

I loved the fish tacos and the old-fashioned surfboard tables.

Laurel Kallenbach, freelance writer and editor

P.S. Healthy & Earth-Friendly Too

There’s even more to love: Besides being locally owned and dedicated to serving homemade, mostly local food (with some gluten-free options), Coconut’s uses biodegradable to-go containers and cleans with earth-friendly products. Plus, all of its cooking oil is recycled into biofuel.

Originally published April 14, 2014

 

 

 

 

Monterey Bay Aquarium: Saving Oceans One Fish at a Time

The jellyfish tanks are a highlight at the ocean-friendly Monterey Bay Aquarium in California.

For California vacationers, the Monterey Bay Aquarium is the place to see exotic fish and sea creatures. However, the Aquarium is also dedicated to educating people about environmental issues that threaten ocean creatures. And its Seafood Watch program helps the seafood-loving consumers make wise seafood choices.

Among the Monterey Bay Aquarium’s highlights are the Kelp Forest exhibit, playful sea otters, giant tunas and barracudas (go at lunchtime to witness a feeding frenzy!), and the mysterious giant octopus whose tentacles move more gracefully than ballerinas. Also worth checking out are cute black-footed penguins, jellyfish that drift in the currents, and the Touching Pool, where you can place your hands in the water and brush your fingertips over the silky wings of stingrays gliding around the tank.

My favorite octopus, Monterey Bay Aquarium

These incredible marine life forms are so diverse and enthralling that it’s inconceivable to think of them disappearing. So it’s encouraging that the Aquarium teaches about ocean conservation.

Every year, 80,000 school children visit and learn about why they shouldn’t eat swordfish (the fishing lines entangle endangered sea turtles) or Atlantic cod (it’s dangerously overfished). The kids take home a handy Seafood Watch Pocket Guide, which lists the best and least sustainable choices of seafood at supermarkets and restaurants.

Watching Out for Oceans

The Monterey Bay Aquarium raises and explains issues pertaining to choosing and eating fish:

Overfishing: Fish such as orange roughy, Chilean sea bass and bluefin tuna are threatened due to over-zealous fishing. Seafood Watch estimates that more than 70 percent of the world’s fisheries are either fished to capacity or overfished.

Farmed vs. wild-caught: Some aquaculture methods, including salmon farming, produce concentrated fecal waste that pollutes surrounding waters.

Method of fishing: If fish is caught wild, methods such as trawl nets, dredging and traps kill other species. The most famous example was dolphins being caught in tuna nets.

Human health: Toxic mercury content of seafood is a disturbing health problem, although fortunately some fish contain less mercury than others. (Swordfish, tilefish, shark, and king mackerel are especially high in mercury and should be avoided.)

Fortunately, according to Seafood Watch, we can make a difference by supporting fisheries and fish farms that are better for the environment, while passing on others that aren’t doing as well.

The Kelp Forest, Monterey Bay Aquarium

SeafoodWatch.org has a downloadable seafood guide listing fish according to their level of endangerment. You can also download a smart phone app that brings you up-to-date recommendations for restaurants and markets that serve ocean-friendly seafood and sushi.

Cooking for Solutions

Love to eat seafood? Cooking for Solutions—a celebration of fine food and wine produced in ways that preserve the health of the soil, water and ocean—is held each May at California’s Monterey Bay Aquarium. Celebrity chefs demonstrate ways to cook sustainably.

Laurel Kallenbach, freelance writer and editor

Read my post about Passionfish, a sustainable seafood restaurant near the Monterey Bay Aquarium. 

Photos courtesy Monterey Bay Aquarium